Church of the Nativity

UNESCO World Cultual Heritage Site

The Church of the Nativity is the church in Bethlehem built where Jesus was born.

It faces the front of Manger Square.

The Church of the Nativity appearance, Bethlehem
It is said that the church changed to a citadel-like look in the Crusades era.

There are always full of pilgrims and tourists a whole year through, especially during Christmas.

Sometimes you might force to wait in a queue for hours to enter the Grotto of the Nativity under the altar.

History of the Church of the Nativity

326 CE

Roman emperor Constantine the Great, who conquered Palestine, constructed the Church of the Nativity at the birthplace of Jesus according to the advice of Helena, his mother.


The Samaritans revolted and destroyed the church.

However, the church was beautifully reconstructed according to an order by Byzantine (East Roman) emperor Justinian I.


Islamic Sasanian Empire took control of Palestine.

Though it was a Christian church, the Church of the Nativity escaped devastation because there was a beautiful mosaic of “Adoration of the Magi” on its floor.

The floor mosaic of the Nativity of the Church
These mosaics have been conserved since the era of Constantine the Great.

around the 12th century

At the end of the 11th century, the Crusades re-established Christian control.

In the 12th century, the Church of the Nativity served important roles; Kings of the Franks used the church for their coronations.

During these periods, the church was hugely renovated to a citadel-like appearance with a surrounding wall, according to the king of Constantinople (present-day Istanbul).


The first Sultan Saladin of Egypt and Syria conquered Palestine again for Islam.

The Church of the Nativity became under the control of Greek Orthodox. Because of some power struggle at the top, the renovation was stopped and the church became old and ruined.

after the 16th century

The renovation finally re-started under the Ottoman Empire.

The entrance changed into a smaller one like the present. The 120cm entrance is called The Door of Humility.

The Door of Humility at the Church of the Nativity, Bethlehem
The Door of Humility at the entrance of the Church of the Nativity

That is said that it’s because the people didn’t rein up horses into the church anymore.

The Grotto of the Nativity

The Grotto of the Nativity, the birthplace of Christ, is located under the altar of the church.

The Grotto of the Nativity at the Church of the Nativity, Bethlehem
The Grotto of the Nativity: always full of visitors in this small room.

There are stairs from both sides of the altar, but there seems an unspoken rule; going down from the right, then going up to the left of the altar.

On the exact spot of the birthplace of Jesus, a 14-pointed silver star is buried with the words:


which means “Here Jesus Christ was born of the Virgin Mary” in Latin.

14-pointed silver star of the Grotto of the Nativity
Where the star is buried is the exact spot of His birthplace.

It is also said that the fourteen points of the star show Abraham, Adam, David, Babylon captivity, and the generations until Jesus was born.

There are fifteen lanterns lighted up around the spot.

And also, please don’t miss the tapestries; these show the scenes of Jesus’ birth.

The Church of Saint Cathrine

The Church of Saint Catherine is a Franciscan monastery. It’s located just north next to the Church of the Nativity.

The Church of Saint Catherine, Bethlehem
The Church of Saint Catherine is a Catholic church - famous for its Christmas mess.

The church was renovated in 1947.

The thing which makes this church more famous is its Midnight mess held on December 24 every year.

People say that it’s extremely difficult for foreigners to get a ticket. Even the locals might be able to have one or two tickets for a family.

At the entrance yard, you can see the statue of Saint Jerome known for his achievement of translating the Bible into Latin.

The Church of the Catherine entrance yard, Bethlehem
The entrance yard of the Church of Saint Catherine - the statue of Saint Jerome is at its center.

This statue has a human skull on its feet, which is one of Saint Jerome’s symbols.

Also, inside the gate, there is another statue: the statue of Saint George.

The statue of Saint George at the church of St. Catherine, Bethlehem

There is also the Church of Saint George in the suburbs of Bethlehem. On the 5th of May of every year, Orthodox Christians celebrate the day of Saint George.

The Church of St. George, Palestine
At the mess, people offer big bread baked with the special mold of Saint George.

Before leaving the church after the mess, pass under the Saint George’s chains - it’s believed it brings you happiness.

If you’re a woman and you’d have a chance to visit Saint Jerome’s day mess, be careful with the “dress code”, according to an Orthodox Christian woman, many Muslim men come to the church to see Christian women’s skin.

The confrontation between three Christian churches

The Church of the Nativity is managed by three Christian churches: Catholic, Greek Orthodox, and Armenian. Each church takes care of a different part of the Church.

At the cleaning of the Church on December 31 of each year, the clergymen sometimes fight each other because one claims the other invades its territory.

It became news in the Telegraph when it was too big that the polices came to intercede.

It looks like a children’s fight…

Besides, though the Church of the Nativity still needs a huge restoration, the confrontation makes it more difficult to start it.

Because of this quarrel, it is said the Muslims keep the church key.


The Church of the Nativity

  • Manger sq.
  • 5:00-20:00 (winter till 18:00)
  • Admission Free
Map of the church of the nativity
© PlanetWare

Church of Saint Cathrine

  • Manger sq.
  • Mon-Sat 5:00-12:00/14:00-20:00, Sun 14:00-20:00
  • Admission Free

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